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General Readings on SOFC

Web Tutorials

Technical Articles


Fuel Cell Information Sites & Consortiums

Class 1: Overview of SOFC

Read some of the general sites above.  Think about:

  • What is a fuel cell?
  • What is a SOFC and how is it different from H fuel cells being researched for cars?
  • What does a cross section of a SOFC look like?
  • How does a SOFC operate?
  • What are the advantages of a SOFC?
  • Why are ceramics used?
  • Why are nanomaterials use?

Class 2: Introduction to Ceramics in SOFC

Read Callister 12.1-12.2 and 13.8-13.11 and think about

  • How do you calculate the coordination number from the ionic readius?
  • Review the crystal structure for rock salt, CsCl, and zinc blende.
  • Review how the coordination number determined the crystal structure as shown in Table 12.4.

From Chapter 13, review the definitions of

  • Annealing
  • Sintering
  • Slip casting
  • Tape casting

Class 3: Ceramic Defects

Read Callister  4.2, 4.5-4.7 and 12.5 and review the definitions for:

  • Vacancy
  • Interstitial
  • Self-interstitial
  • Electroneutrality
  • Frenkel defect
  • Schottky defect
  • point defect
  • line defect
  • grain boundary

Class 4: Diffusion via defects

Read Callister 5.1-5.2, 5.5-5.6 and review the definitions for:

  • vacancy diffusion
  • interstitial diffusion
  • diffusion coefficient
  • fast paths for diffusion

Think about

  • How does the diffusion rate change if you increase
    • the temperature
    • the vacancy concentration'the amount of grain boundaries
  • When in a SOFC operation do you have diffusion?
  • Why do SOFC operate at high temperatures?

Read Callister 13.10 and thin about

  • What is the role diffusion plays in sintering (Figure 13.14)?

Class 5 & 6: Ceramic Phase Diagrams

Read Callister 9.1-9.15

Review the definitions for

  • Component
  • Solubility limit
  • Isomorphous
  • Eutectic
  • Eutectoid
  • Solidus, liquidus, and solvus line
  • Invariant point
  • Congruent point
  • Lever rule

Think about

  • Using Figure 9.6, identify the equilibrium phases and their compositions at various temperatures.  Use the lever rule to determine the fraction of each phase present
  • Study the figures in section 9.11 and understand the microstructure as a function of temperature

References of SOFC Materials:


J. Will, A. Mitterdorfer, C. Kleinlogel, D. Perednis, and L.J. Gauckler, “Fabrication of thin electrolytes for second-generation solid oxide fuel cells,” Solid State Ionics, 131 (2000) 79-96.  


J.B. Goodenough, “Ceramic solid electrolytes,” Solid State Ionics, 94 (1997) 17-25.


S.P.S. Badwal and K. Foger, “Solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell review,” Ceramics International, 22 (1996) 257-265.


A.J. Appleby, “Fuel cell technology: status and future prospects,” Energy, 21 [7/8] 521-653 (1996).


A.J. McEvoy, “Materials for high-temperature oxygen reduction in solid oxide fuel cells,” Journal of Materials Science, 36 (2001) 1087-1091.


A.J. McEvoy, “Thin SOFC electrolytes and their interfaces – a near term research strategy,” Solid State Ionics, 132 (2000) 159-165.


M.L. Perry and T.F. Fuller, “A historical perspective of fuel cell technology in the 20th century,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 149 [7] S59-S67 (2002).


H.-H. Möbius, “On the history of solid electrolyte fuel cells,” Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 1 (1997) 2-16.


K. Huang, J. Wan, and J.B. Goodenough, “Oxide-ion conducting ceramics for solid oxide fuel cells,” Journal of Materials Science, 36 (2001) 1093-1098.


F. Tietz, H.-P. Buchkremer, and D. Stöver, “Components manufacturing for solid oxide fuel cells,” Solid State Ionics, 152-153 (2002) 373-381.


Making the nanomaterial powder: L.A. Perez-Maqueda and E. Matijevic, “Preparation and characterization of nanosized zirconium (hydrous) oxide particles,” Journal of Materials Research, 12 [12] 3286-3292 (1997)..  

References on Synthesis:

This is a multi-university effort with contributions from:

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Chemical and Materials Engineering
Prof. Stacy Gleixner
Prof. Hilary Lackritz

University of Nevada, Reno
Metallurgical and Materials Engineering
Prof. Olivia Graeve

University of Florida Wordmark
Materials Science and Engineering
Prof. Elliot Douglas

Prof. Laura Demsetz

Materials Science and Engineering
Prof. Amy Moll

The curriculum development is a three year long project sponsored by the National Science Foundation (DUE #0341633).  The development work began in June 2004.  Stay tuned to this site for updates on our progress.

This page is maintained by Prof. Stacy Gleixner.  SJSU logo
San Jose State University
Questions or problems please send email to or call (408)924-4051.
The page was last updated 03/02/06 .