On the prior page, you were introduced to the Ge-based transistor, first discovered by Bardeen, Brattain and Shockley in 1947. The next image illustrates how a transistor functions. If you are interested in learning more about the basics of how semiconductors and transistors function, please visit the following source. A "rough guide to electronics" is presented by MadLab, part of the Edinburgh International Science Festival.
The actual "architecture" of a functional transistor, in section, is illustrated in the next image. Perhaps from this perspective, and the IBM image in the Semiconductors web page, you can get some appreciation of the elegance of the integrated circuit! For further information about state-of-the-art transistor technology, link to this Intel Corporation web page.
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